Summer 2010 Session
Cultural Research Compilation
24 pages
PDF (1.2 mb)
Edition of 1



Susan K. Freedman, President

Nicholas Baume, Director and Chief Curator

plus a Board of Directors



Distribution of funds on a project-by-project basis:

-Private donations

-National Endowment for the Arts

-New York City Department of Cultural Affairs

-New York State Council on the Arts (a SAA)

-Corporate sponsors

PAF operates as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization


Yes. PAF works with government agencies to organize and execute some of its major events

(Olafur Eliasson's Waterfalls)


Yes. Waterfalls generated +$69 million in economic activity for New York City.



Local and international, depending on project scale. Tourism is an important element.


A build-up of public arts projects that help sustain arts participation in the city and maintain it's international image.


Good. PAF promotes art events at multiple scales all over NYC

U.S. Non-Profit Organizations Content    


NPO: Public Art Fund
ARTIST/GROUP: Olafur Eliasson
NAME: New York City Waterfalls
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: New York City
IMPACT: +$69 Million in economic activity, +1.4 million visitors in 3 months
DESCRIPTION: 4 artificial waterfalls around New York City's East River.




NPO: Creative Time
NAME: Louisville Public Art Master Plan
TYPE: Urbanism
LOCATION: Louisville, KY
TIME: 2007
DESCRIPTION: Proposal and implementation of a flexible, phased, short- and long-term Public Art master plan for the city.




NPO: Public Art Fund
NAME: Bisected Triangle, Interior Curve
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: Madison Square Park, New York City
TIME: 2002
DESCRIPTION: Two-room pavilion made from tinted, transparent, and reflective glass. Changing relationships between reflections and views out into the park.



NPO: Creative Time
ARTIST/GROUP: Artists Julian LaVerdiere and Paul Myoda, architects John Bennett and Gustavo Bonevardi of PROUN Space Studio, architect Richard Nash Gould, and lighting designer Paul Marantz
NAME: Tribute in Light
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: World Trade Center, New York City
TIME: 2002-present (annual memorial)
DESCRIPTION: Two beams of light memorialize the site of the 9/11 terrorist attack.




NPO: Creative Time
ARTIST: Doug Aitken
NAME: Sleepwalkers
TYPE: Video Projection
LOCATION: New York City
TIME: 2007
DESCRIPTION: Film projections are superimposed on and integrated with buildings in the city. Multiple stories are shown over numerous projections.




NPO: Public Art Fund
NAME: In The Public Realm
TYPE: Program / Initiative
LOCATION: New York City
TIME: 1995-present
IMPACT: $1,000 each for ten artists selected to develop a proposal for a public artwork. $15,000 commission and $2,500 artist fee for up to three artists to realize their artwork
DESCRIPTION: Program designed to promote and realize projects by emerging New York artists.


U.S. Non-Profit Organizations Urban Impact    


EVENT: Waterfalls by Olafur Eliasson (2007)
LOCATION: New York, New York
AREA/VENUE: East River
IMPACT: Public Art Fund helped organize four artificial waterfalls to be installed in various locations in New York City's East River which typically incorporated the city's existing physical infrastructure as site. This art piece is an example of engaging the physical and spatial infrastructure of the city versus the actual buildings themselves.




EVENT: "Tribute in Light" installation (2002-present)
LOCATION: New York, New York
AREA/VENUE: Ground Zero (WTC site)
IMPACT: The "Tribute in Light" installation by a collaborative group or artists and designers was a public art project curated in association with CreativeTime to commemorate the 9/11 attacks of the World Trade Center. The work shows art's ability to use light, memory and a city's context to invoke a powerful, albeit temporary, memorial.



missing image file

EVENT: Louisville Public Art Master Plan
LOCATION: Louisville, Kentucky, United States
AREA/VENUE: city of Louisville
IMPACT: CreativeTime, a New York City based NPO, was involved in a proposal for the implementation of a public art master plan for the city of Louisviille involving both short-term and long-term solutions. The involvement of CreativeTime showcases how NPO participation is critical in incorporating art in city environments without the help of active government support in the planning and funding process.


missing image file

EVENT: public art works
LOCATION: New York, New York
AREA/VENUE: New York City
IMPACT: Non-profit organizations, including the active Public Art Fund and CreativeTime organizations, continue to commission both temporary and permanent art projects by various artists to saturate New York City. These initiatives along with public engagement continue to reinvent public art practice and fuse art work with city landscape.



Additional Diagrams and Articles    

Funding Sources for U.S. NPOs
Private Giving: 43%
Earned Income: 43%
Federal: 9%
State: 3%
Local: 1%

Source:The Urban Institute's National Center for Charitable Statistics, The Conference Board, The Foundation Center, National Assembly of StateArts Agencies, and Americans for the Arts 2004


Number of Non-Profit Arts Organizations by State
California: 14,768
New York: 10,888
Texas: 7,287
Illinois: 5,365
Pennsylvania: 5,214
National Total: 122,223
source: National Center for Charitable Statistics 2009


Public and Private Arts Funding in the U.S.
Private funding for the arts in 2009 was $12.3 billion while public funding was $508 million. For comparison, the French national government spent close to $15 billion.

New York has the highest amount of NEA funding at $52 million. The District of Columbia has the highest per capita funding at almost $11.
source: National Endowment for the Arts

What is the role of the museum in contemporary culture?

New York MoMA subtracted from the city.


Supply and Demand
Eighty percent of U.S. State Arts Agency grants go towards supply: the creation, performance, and display of art. Twenty percent goes towards demand: organizations that educate, mentor, discuss, or critique art.

Sources of State Arts Agency Funding
The majority of funds come directly from legislative appropriations while twelve percent comes from the NEA.

Supply and Demand 1990-2005
Initial research of the U.S. arts sector shows a decrease in the demand of funding and public participation in art and culture. The number of artists has increased while the participation numbers have decreased. For the arts sector to thrive in the U.S. we need to develop new ways of cultivating the demand for the arts.
source: NEA Artists in the Workforce; Survey of Public Participation in the Arts


Top Arts and Culture Philanthropists
(in millions)

Eli and Edythe Broad: $1,333M
Paul Allen: $735M
Ruth Lilly: $560M

of total philanthropic contributions go towards Arts, Culture, and Humanities.


Arts and Culture Non-Profit Organizations, 2009

Total U.S. Arts Funding
in billions of dollars





European Capitals of Culture



Local government

European Commission





35% City

25% Nation

20% Sponors

15% Region

5% EU


100% involvement. They apply for the designation, organize the program and facilitate the events throughout the year.




New Jobs




Typically much larger than the local population.

Tourists visitation can be anywhere from 200,000 to 15,000,000

Artist participation is on average 1/2 local, 1/3 national and 1/6 international.


New urban infrastructure


Increases visibility of city, local confidence, and urban regeneration


European Capital of Culture Content    


ARCHITECT: Peter Cook, Colin Fournier

NAME: Kunsthalle

TYPE: Museum

LOCATION: Graz, Austria

TIME: 2003

COST: $40.8 Million

DESCRIPTION: Contemporary art museum. The building stands out in the shape and material composition, and it includes the facade of the building circa 1847.




ARTIST: Vito Acconci

NAME: Island in the Mur

TYPE: Bridge / Theater / Cafe

LOCATION: Graz, Austria

TIME: 2003

COST: $6 Million

DESCRIPTION: Acconci implanted an "artificial joint" linking nature and city, which forces visitors to adopt new perspectives.




ARCHITECT: Lars Spuybroek

NAME: La Maison Folie de Wazemmes

TYPE: Building

LOCATION: Lille, France

TIME: 2004

DESCRIPTION: An old textile mill transformed into a performance space: theater, studios, workshops, exhibition spaces, dining hall.



ARCHITECT: Treusch Architecture

NAME: Ars Electronica Center

TYPE: Building

LOCATION: Linz, Austria

TIME: 2009

DESCRIPTION: Exhibition space. Building covered with a dynamic, changing LED skin.




ARTIST: La Machine

NAME: La Princesse

TYPE: Installation / Performance

LOCATION: Liverpool, England

TIME: 2008

DESCRIPTION: Giant mechanical spider operated by 12 performers.



European Capital of Culture Urban Impact    


EVENT: European Capital Of Culture 2008

LOCATION: Liverpool

AREA/VENUE: King's Waterfront

IMPACT: Kings Waterfront covers 14.6 hectares, and for some time was the largest undeveloped site in the City Centre. The award to Liverpool of European Capital of Culture 2008 provided an impetus for unparalleled levels of investment in the retail led development of the Paradise Street area, the business district centred on Old Hall Street, and the Ropewalks, Baltic and Hope Street areas. Today, King's dock is home to the ACC Convention Center, The Jury's Inn Hotel, the Dukes Dock pedestrian bridge, and a sizeable apartment complex.




EVENT: European Capital of Culture 2004


AREA/VENUE: Parc de la Deûle

IMPACT: The year 2004 witnessed the completion of the first stages of a vast regeneration programme of the length of the river Deûle, a plan that was originally outlined in 1968. This natural park is imagined as the green lungs of the Lille metropolitan area. Overseen by the Espace Naturel Métropolitain, the Parc de la Deûle was officially opened in Spring 2004. The whole 650 hectares will continue to be developed until the end of the decade.




EVENT: European Capital of Culture 2009


AREA/VENUE: Pöstlingbergbahn Expansion

IMPACT: Starting in 2008, the Rail underwent a 14-month suspension for reconstruction and fleet replacement. The track was completely rebuilt, and extended to the Hauptplatz, or "main square" of Linz. These changes have caused the Pöstlingbergbahn to be more closely integrated into the urban transit system, also allowing tourists to travel by rail from the boat docks.



EVENT: European Capital Of Culture 2010



IMPACT: A large art project on the island of Emscher that activated locks, former industrial sites and otherwise urban wastelands, ultimately producing eight exhibition rooms displaying works from 40 different individuals over the course of 100 days.




EVENT: European Capital of Culture 2007

LOCATION: Luxembourg

AREA/VENUE: Halle des Soufflantes

IMPACT: Looking more specifically at the investments made by the ECOC in Luxembourg, we see that the refurbished former industrial premises continue to operate as cultural facilities, a key example is Halle des Soufflantes, an iron and steel factory used as an exhibition space of ALL WE NEED; its future is the subject of discussion between the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Education and Research and le Fonds Belval, but through this revitalization it creates a urban renewal of outdated and unused buildings back into the city's infrastructure.



EVENTs: European Capital of Culture 2003



IMPACT: During a five-week period, young artists from Saint Petersburg presented works from different disciplines - graphic arts, sculpture, music, literature and cinema. The latest trends in Russian graphic art were presented in different places in the city of Graz, this activation of public space for art altered the city's environment and helped fuel the social and cultural urban environment.





World Expo


Seattle Expo 1962
"Century 21 Exposition"

20 participating countries
$47 million expenditures
9,609,969 visitors
74 acres site


Seville Expo 1992
"The Age of Discovery"

108 participating countries
$30 billion expenditures
41,814,571 visitors
537 acres site


Shanghai Expo 2010
"Better City, Better Life"

192 participating countries
$47 billion expenditures
65,988,800 visitors
1304 acres site

Expo Content


F-Avenue de l'Europe, le Pavillon Philips, Bruxelles 1958.jpeg

NAME: Phillips Pavillion
ARCHITECT: Le Corbusier
TYPE: Pavillion
LOCATION: Brussels
TIME: 1958
DESCRIPTION: The Pavillion is a cluster of hyberbolic, paraboloids, which combine to create contours out of prestressed concrete.



NAME: Atomium
ARCHITECT: Andre Waterkeyn
TYPE: Pavillion
LOCATION: Brussels
TIME: 1958
DESCRIPTION: 335 ft tall model of an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times.



NAME: Seed Cathedral/British Pavillion
ARCHITECT: Heatherwick Studio
TYPE: Pavillion
LOCATION: Shanghai
TIME: 2010
DESCRIPTION: 60,000 transparent optical strands, each holds a single seed. The strands allow light inside the space. The pavillion provides a significant public open space for visitors to relax.


NAME: Space Needle
ARCHITECT: Edward E. Carlson and John Graham
TYPE: Tower
LOCATION: Seattle, Washington
TIME: 1962
DESCRIPTION: A 605 ft tall spire constructed as the centerpiece of the expo.



Shanghai Pavillion.jpeg

NAME: Chinese Pavilion
ARCHITECT: He Jingtang
TYPE: Pavilion
LOCATION: Shanghai
TIME: 2010
DESCRIPTION: The pavilion is an exploration of the traditional dougong brackets used in chinese architecture. It is one of only four pavilions which will remain after the expo. After the expo it will become a museum of national history.



Expo Urban Impact



EVENT: Expo '92
LOCATION: Seville, Spain
IMPACT: The countries high speed rail line was extended to Seville from Madrid, connecting the two cities in only 3 hours. 5 new bridges were constructed to connect the city with the expo cite located just outside its historic center. The improvements rehabilitated the cities image so that it was able to host the America's Cup and the UEFA Cup following the successful expo.



EVENT: Expo '10
LOCATION: Expo 2010 Site, Shanghai, China
DESCRIPTION: The Shanghai expo is on the largest site of any modern expo, 1,304 acres. Following the expo the site will be demolished and redeveloped. Although the expo will have a lasting impact on the site, little evidence of the expo will remain after its close.


mvrdv_dutch pavilion_lg.tif

EVENT: Expo '00
LOCATION: Hanover, Germany
DESCRIPTION: For the 2000 expo the city of Hannover utilized their existing fairgrounds for the expo site. The improvements made to the fairgrounds allowed Hannover to begin hosting additional fairs and expos, including two of the largest technology expos in the world every year. Even though the 2000 expo ended up losing over $1 billion the city has earned that investment back through the tourism brought in by their improved fairgrounds.


EVENT: Expo '84
LOCATION: New Orleans, Louisiana
AREA/VENUE: New Orleans Convention Center
DESCRIPTION: The 1984 expo in New Orleans had to declare bankruptcy before the it was even scheduled to end. Despite this fact, the city of New Orleans still consider the event a success. The construction of the convention center for the expo was the beginning a new industry for the area. New Orleans is now one of the most popular choices for conventions in the country.



EVENT: Expo '62
LOCATION: Seattle, Washington
AREA/VENUE: Seattle Center
IMPACT: The site of the 1962 expo is now known as the Seattle Center and in the cultural hub of the city. The Alweg Monorail, constructed for the expo, connects the site with the downtown area. Today the site houses the Pacific Science Center, the Space Needle, Key Arena and the Experience Music Project.


Additional Diagrams and Articles


Attendance per Square Foot


Shanghai Expo Site


Seattle Expo Site


Columbian Exposition 1894

The Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 led to the City Beautiful movement almost on accident. Planning for the expo was behind schedule, and the architect in charge needed a common language for all participating architects to comply with. In America at the time all the architects were either trained in Europe at the Ecole Des Beaux Arts or at American schools modeled after that system. To accommodate all the participating architects the Classical style was chosen because of their common educational background. This choice led to the creation of the White City which became the inspiration for the City Beautiful movement and the Bard Act which regulated the aesthetic look of a city.


Shanghai Expo 2010

This year's expo in Shanghai covers one of the largest sites ever used for an expo, and has one of the largest budgets. 192 different countries have come to Shanghai and 42 of them have built their own pavilions making this expo the most widely participated in history. The theme of this year's expo is "Better City, Better Life," a major portion of this theme, and a main focus of most of the participants is sustainable living. Ironically, following the close of the expo, all but the four Chinese pavilions will be dismantled. The site that is currently housing the Shanghai Expo, previously housed 18,000 residences and will later be home to an entirely new development that is already planned for the site.


Seville Expo 1992

The Seville Expo in 1992 competed with the Barcelona Olympics and was still able to be successful in the long term. Seville was able to construct 5 new bridges for their city and a high speed rail line which connected it to Madrid. These infrastructure projects were able to propel Seville into the national spotlight and allowed Seville to become a viable city to host many other international events, including the America's Cup and the UEFA Cup Final.

Hannover 2000

Despite Hannover being a major convention city in Europe, its attempt at an expo in 2000 was so poorly attended it ended with Hannover losing over $1 billion. Hannover hosts two of the largest technology fairs in the world every year, as well as countless other fairs. Despite this, or perhaps because of its reputation as a business destination, it was unable to attract even half of the 40 million visitors they projected.








Paula Ridley (Chairman), Ex Chair V & A Museum and Tate Liverpool, Ex Trustee Tate and National Gallery

Alistair Sunderland, Senior Partner Austin: Smith Lord, Liverpool

Michael Cox, Partner Grant Thornton UK LLP

Jane Wentworth, Independent Brand Consultant

Roger Goddard, Retired Director of Finance & Internal Services of Arts Council (Manchester)

Lesley Chalmers, Committee Member at European Institute for Urban Affairs, Owner at Lesley Chalmers Photography

Jim Gill, Chief Executive Liverpool Vision

Simon MacKinnon, Honorary Director, the Liverpool Shanghai Partnership

Tony Wilson, Senior Partner Hill Dickinson

Gerald Pillay, Professor Rector and Chief Executive Liverpool Hope University

John Shield, Partner JST Lawyers
Ryan Gander, Artist



$2,850,000 total funds (2010):
USD$950K from European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
USD$950K from Northwest Regional Development Agency (NWDA)
USD$950K from charity/private fund raising

Yes. The city of Liverpool is involved in the event

Liverpool generated USD$40 million in indirect revenue

(events were free, no ticket sales)



45% local residents
46% from UK (outside Liverpool)
9% from Oversea

Filling/fixing/developing "urban voids" are focused on (in Liverpool)

The Liverpool Biennial is gaining recognition. Organizers have higher hopes for the participation and economic gain for the 2010 event.

Biennial Content    


ARTIST: Richard Wilson
NAME: Turnign the Place Over
TYPE: Intervention
LOCATION: Liverpool Biennial
TIME: 2008
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: A circle 26 feet in diameter is cut from the building and attached to a machine that rotates it in 3 dimensions. "... its appeal is that you don't have to be an art lover to be interested in it and delighted by it. "




ARTIST: Swoon (and friends)
NAME: Swimming Cities
TYPE: Sculpture / Event / Installation
LOCATION: Venice Bienalle
TIME: 2009
SCALE: International > Local
COST: $150,000
DESCRIPTION: Boats built from NYC trash, shipped to Slovenia, and floated to Venice. Freedom through radical self-reliance. Never received an invitation to the bienalle, they just went for it.




ARTIST: Gonzalo Lebrija
NAME: Between Life and Death
TYPE: Sculpture
LOCATION: Biennial of the Americas, Denver, CO
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: A car is set vertically over a reflecting pond.



ARTIST: Karlos Andrei Ibarra
NAME: Vivo En America
TYPE: Sculpture
LOCATION: Biennial of the Americas, Denver, CO
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: Solar-powered neon sign addressing immigration, nationality, and personal identity.




ARTIST: Yoca Muta
NAME: Two People
TYPE: Sculpture
LOCATION: Liverpool Biennial
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: Two small figures, man and woman, white and black.



cafe bravo dan graham.jpg

ARTIST: Dan Graham
NAME: Cafe Bravo
TYPE: Pavilion
LOCATION: KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin
TIME: 1999
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: Functioning cafe. Refraction, reflection, and transparency shift perception of the surrounding courtyard and buildings.


Biennial Urban Impact    

missing image file

EVENT: Liverpool Biennial (2010)
LOCATION: Liverpool, United Kingdom
AREA/VENUE: city voids
IMPACT: Each Liverpool biennial, the city identifies urban voids located between physical infrastructure to exploit as an artist's site. Artists are invited from around the world to redefine the identity of these spaces and create contemporary art which temporarily transform the city to a cultural destination.



missing image file

EVENT: Biennial of the Americas (2010)
LOCATION: Denver, Colorado, United States
AREA/VENUE: McNichols Building
IMPACT: The local government gutted a previously administrative-only building in the downtown Civic Center, the McNichols Building, to serve as the main stage and venue for art exhibitions during the Biennial of the Americas. The renovated public building will serve the city beyond the length of the event as a venue for the city incorporating both exhibition and workshop facilities.



missing image file

EVENT: Venice Biennale (2009)
LOCATION: Venice, Italy
AREA/VENUE: city of Venice
IMPACT: The most historic and monumental of the biennials, the Venice Biennale is also the densest. Over 100 buildings including museums, warehouses and pavilions are used during the event that occupies only six square miles (five times the size of Central Park in New York City). The event has gradually grown in size and density with an ingrained flexibility required to adapt to the city's aging infrastructure.


missing image file
EVENT: Berlin Biennial for Contemporary Art (2008)
LOCATION: Berlin, Germany
AREA/VENUE: Berlin-Mitte district
IMPACT Augustrasse, a street of roughly one kilometer in length, has seen all walks of life in Berlin's history which most recently has become the backbone of the city's art community. The curators of the 4th Berlin Biennial in 2006 came across a previous exhibition using the street to combine public and private spaces to display art. The curators decided to reinvent the exhibition across 15 different venues ranging from private apartments to bomb shelter basements to local churches. The Augustrasse exhibition shows how a city's existing private/public spaces can be used to display art outside the "white-box" gallery.









-Arnold Bode – original founder of Documenta in 1955

-Arnold Bode and associates create business entity to run Documenta (a limited liability company – LCC) in 1959

-City of Kassel and State of Hesse set-up own non-profit as co-contributor (the mayor of Kassel is board chairman)

-Documenta (LLC) and gov't non-profit Museum Frideicianum Event GmbH co-organize and help fund each event

-Artistic Director (re:Curator) is chosen each Documenta by an invited panel of artists and curators to run each event



-50% of funds are derived from the sale of tickets, catalogs and marketing materials

-50% of funds are derived from the local and state government who financially support the Documenta via its own funds as well as financial support given be federal government


Government provides approx 50% of funding, little involvement beyond financial support


Large economic impact to local region, especially the city of Kassel.

City has grown in direct response to Documenta.



-Large mixed group is brought to Kassel, Germany every Document (650,000 visitors in 2007)

-Most are German, but almost a third come from international destinations

-Demographics include a diverse age range from kids to senior citizens


Sustainable arts culture within Kassel: supply and demand

Urban infrastructure: Exhibition venues, universities, hotels, restaurants, transit networks and parks


People, culture, education and economy have all been introduced to Kassel due to Documenta.

Documenta Content    


ARTIST/GROUP: Joseph Beuys
NAME: 7000 Oaks
TYPE: Installation / Rehabilitation
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
TIME: 1982-1987 to present
DESCRIPTION: Trees were planted in urban voids in an attempt to effect environmental and social change. The work is interdisciplinary and participatory.



ARTIST/GROUP: Ferran Adria
TYPE: Happening
LOCATION: Kassel and Catalonia, Spain
TIME: 2007
DESCRIPTION: Two visitors a day are selected and flown to Adria's restaurant El Bulli in Spain.




NAME: Fairytales: 1001 Chinese Visitors
TYPE: Installation / Happening
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
TIME: 2007, June-July
COST: $4.3 million
DESCRIPTION: 1001 Chinese tourists visited Kassel.


NAME: Oasis no.7
TYPE: Installation
TIME: 1975
DESCRIPTION: Steel structure cantilevered out from existing building and enclosed with an 8 meter vinyl bubble, creating an artificial environment neither inside nor outside.



TYPE: Archive
TIME: 1954-present
DESCRIPTION: Documenta builds, restores, and preserves structures around Kassel including the Orangerie, New Gallery, and Documenta Halle. The growth of the event and the city are explicitly linked together.



NAME: Inhabiting the World
TYPE: Education initiative
TIME: 2007
DESCRIPTION: Education initiative. School children lead tours of the work in Kassel.

Documenta Urban Impact    

missing image file

EVENT: Documenta XI (2002)
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: Binding Brewery
IMPACT: Nigerian curator Okwui Enwezor identified the abandoned Binding Brewery in a post-industrial area of the city as the main venue for Documenta XI. The idea of designating a new event venue from an existing, underused building has become ritual in Documenta's continually revolving exhibition spaces.



missing image file

EVENT: Documenta XII (2007)
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: Kulturzentrum
IMPACT: In 2007, Documenta adopted an existing cultural facility- the Kulturzentrum- as a venue for both the display for contemporary art as well as workshops and education programs directed towards the local community. By incorporating a facility already familiar and accessible to Kassel citizens, local participation in the event doubled.



missing image file

EVENT: Documenta
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: city of Kassel
IMPACT: Each Documenta, the artists are invited to work outside the building venues and use the city landscape as locations for their art. After the conclusion of the exhibition, the city identifies the more successful art pieces and purchases them as permanent art works to be incorporated into the city fabric, blurring the line between temporary installation and permanent art.


missing image file

EVENT: Documenta VII (1982) : "7000 Oaks"
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: city of Kassel
IMPACT: Artist Joseph Beuys's environmental art piece "7000 Oaks" encouraged the planting of 7000 trees in the cityscape of Kassel as an ecological intervention. The planting occured over a span of five years with each tree receiving a basalt stone as an identifier. This art work was intended to alter the living space of the city and still functions today as an adopted piece of the city landscape.



missing image file

EVENT: Documenta
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: city of Kassel
IMPACT: Exhibition venues, universities, hotels, restaurants, transit networks and parks all have been incorporated into the city fabric as a result of the demand the contemporary art fair places on the city's infrastructure.



missing image file

EVENT: Documenta
LOCATION: Kassel, Germany
AREA/VENUE: city of Kassel
IMPACT: Venues for the event have grown over the 50 year history of Documenta to include abandoned historical buildings, new construction as well as existing museums and parks. This constant cycle of adoption and creation brings a fresh perspective to the event every five years and activates different areas of the city during the event. The majority of venues are used by the city after the conclusion of the art fair for exhibition or archival purposes.








Hedwig Fijen, Director of Manifesta Foundation

Viktor Misiano, Chair of The Board

Curators change each edition of Manifesta



Local government.


The local government funds and helps organize the event.


$5.8 million in indirect economic activity from Manifesta 7 (2008)



Local and international participation.


Re-use of old city infrastructure, buildings, sites


Increased art education, awareness, and urban renewal.

Manifesta Content    


ARTIST/GROUP: Adam Budak, Anselm Franke/Hila Peleg, Raqs Media Collective
NAME: Scenarios
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: Fortezza Castle, Italy
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: The spaces of the castle are used for projections, audio recordings, texts and scripted spaces.
"Scenarios is a critical reflection of the role that scenarios occupy in our society and the individual or collective imaginary."




NAME: Free Manifesta
TYPE: Installation / action
LOCATION: Frankfurt, Germany
SCALE: Local > International
COST: $15,099
DESCRIPTION: A physical location was purchased thru eBay and opened to amateur artists to engage with the space and exhibit their work. Over 225 artists participated.



GROUP: Manifesta Foundation
NAME: Art Mediators
TYPE: Education Program
LOCATION: Trentino and South Tyrol, Italia
TIME: 2008
SCALE: Regional
DESCRIPTION: Two third of the team of 20 motivated art mediators was selected from candidates from the region. These art mediators, formed through a series of didactic workshops, were then employed, after the closure of Manifesta 7, by local institutions, museums and galleries keeping in the region the know-how developed during the event.


ARTIST: Jeremy Deller
NAME: A Social Parade
TYPE: Rehabilitation
LOCATION: Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
TIME: 2004
SCALE: Local > Urban
IMPACT: Challenging the use of public space
DESCRIPTION: Jeremy Deller organized a parade along Donostia's central boulevard. Including a cross-section of residents, the spectacle made visible the city's rich social and cultural fabric.



GROUP: Education Department of Manifesta 7
NAME: Family Sundays
TYPE: Education Program
LOCATION: Trentino and South Tyrol, Italia
TIME: 2008
SCALE: Regional
DESCRIPTION: Four Family Sundays, with many activities for children and adults to explore together for an encounter with contemporary art.



ARTIST/GROUP: The Fifth Venue
NAME: The Fifth Venue
TYPE: Public TV program
LOCATION: Slovenia, Ljuljbana
TIME: 1982-1987 to present
SCALE: National
IMPACT: An outlet for contemporary visual arts. Remained on the air as a segment of Terminal, a monthly show dedicated to screening the best artworks from all over the world.
DESCRIPTION: Manifesta 3, strongly emphasizing a television project of RTV Slovenia, organized a public TV program as an outlet for contemporary visual arts. The project sought to address the tension between media arts and Traditional visual arts.


Manifesta Urban Impact    

missing image file

EVENT: Manifesta 5 (2004)
LOCATION: Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
AREA/VENUE: ship-building warehouse
IMPACT: Manifesta 5, located in a region of Spain with a tense social-political background, sought to requalify cultural and political identity through both public discourse as well as urban renewal. The Rotterdam-based Berlage Institute collaborated with the event organizers to identify underused city infrastructure and transform industrial buildings such as defunct ship-building warehouses into exhibition spaces and event facilities.



missing image file

EVENT: Manifesta 7 (2008)
LOCATION: Trentino, Italy
AREA/VENUE: Trentino-South Tryol region
IMPACT: This Manifesta spanned a regional area involving four cities versus focusing on one city as its host. The area was selected for its historical heritage as well as it industrial archaeology buildings which showcase the progressive industrialization of the territory. Many of these buildings were chosen as event facilties or given over to artists to be redefined or repurposed. Manifesta 7 allowed the cultural initiative to find new uses for outdate buildings as well as quicken the restoration of existing monuments in showcasing the region's history.



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EVENT: Manifesta 6 (2006)
LOCATION: Nicosia, Cyprus
AREA/VENUE: city of Nicosia
IMPACT: Manifesta 6 intended to locate a post-graduate art education center in a buffer zone located between north and south Cyprus representing Turk and Greek Cypriots respectively. The event itself as well as the art education center were cancelled before their inception due to a lack of cooperation from the local government. The incorporation of a new educational facility to mend a city's cultural and political strife was ambitious, but ultimately never realized.




Art Basel/ Miami



Ernest Baylor, founder

MCH Group- "a leading international group of companies specialised in live marketing."

Local Art Collectors



Privately funded: Corporate sponsors. Galleries pay $35,000-$75,000 to be involved


Minimal to no direct involvement.


6% Sales tax on all artwork sold = $30,000,000 tax revenue (Miami)

7.6% Sales tax = $38,000,000 tax revenue (Basel)



300 international galleries (1,000 apply)

Satellite fairs

30+ events citywide


Increased activity and expansion of the Arts District (Miami)

+ 50% increase in property value around the Arts District (Miami)


Increased tourism.

Art Basel / Art Basel Miami Beach Content    


ARTIST/GROUP: Primary Flight and Art Center South Florida
NAME: Primary Flight
TYPE: Street Art/Murals
LOCATION: Miami, Florida
TIME: 2007-present
SCALE: Urban
IMPACT: Since 2007, over 100 street murals have been installed.
DESCRIPTION: The world's largest site-specific street level mural installation. Commissioned works from some of the most influencial street artist in the world to install their work in the Wynwood Arts District of Miami.




NAME: Pig Island
TYPE: Various Media / Installation
LOCATION: Basel, Switzerland
TIME: June 15th-19th 2010
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: Large body of work examining the American Dream from multiple critical views. A sprawling multi-room 100+ piece installation.




NAME: Art Basel Conversations
TYPE: Discussions
LOCATION: Basel and Miami Beach, FL
TIME: June and Decemeber each year for Art Basel Weekend
SCALE: Local (global in content)
DESCRIPTION: Conversations held between a moderator and leading members within the cultural world. After the discussion between the parties on stage, the floor is open to the audience. The conversations are focused on the production, collection, and exhibition of art. Art Basel conversations are typically held at the beginning of the day(s).



ARTIST/GROUP: Louise Bourgeois
NAME: Les Fleurs
TYPE: Painting
LOCATION: Basel, Switzerland
TIME: June 15th-19th 2010
DESCRIPTION: Sold by Cheim and Reid Gallery of NY at Art Basel Switzerland for $1.5 million.




ARTIST: Cerith Wyn Evans
NAME: Wayward Landscape
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: Basel, Switzerland
TIME: 2010
SCALE: Local
DESCRIPTION: A firework display on a floating platform in the Rhine, adjacent to the oldest bridge in Basel. Wyn Evans' firework pieces are wooden structures that spell out quotes burning over a specified period of time.




ARTIST/GROUP: Art Basel with Creative Time and Pae White
NAME: Oceanfront
TYPE: Installation
LOCATION: Miami Beach, Florida
TIME: Dec 3-6th 2009
SCALE: Local: 1 city block
DESCRIPTION: The "social space" of the Art Basel weekend. The installation by Pae White hosts the discussion panel of the Art Basel Conversations series every morning, and every night during Art Basel Miami Beach, the Oceanfront features a different event: Art Loves Music concerts on the beach, Art Perform, and Art Video.


Art Basel / Art Basel Miami Beach Urban Impact    

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EVENT: Art Basel Miami Beach
LOCATION: Miami, Florida, United States
AREA/VENUE: Wynwood Arts District
IMPACT: Art Basel Miami has helped establish and expand the city's newly designated Arts District to create a "SoHo effect" of the city's existing infrastructure. In 2006, established art galleries moved into the area increasing the existing amount locations by more than 100%. This redevelopment had residual effects as property values increased in the area by at least 50%.



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EVENT: Art Basel Miami Beach
LOCATION: Miami Beach, Florida, United States
AREA/VENUE: Oceanfront Miami Beach
IMPACT: In 2009 Art Basel Miami Beach paired with Creative Time and artist Pae White to create the Oceanfront village. This part of Art Basel is fre and open to the public and host event every night during the Art Basel Weekend. This activation of public space alters the city environment and helps fuel the social and party scene that Art Basel Miami Beach is known for.



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EVENT: Art Basel Miami Beach
LOCATION: Miami, Florida, United States
AREA/VENUE: city of Miami
IMPACT: Smaller satellite fairs piggyback on the hype of Art Basel Miami Beach and supply the city with a total of 800 exhibitors throughtout the three day event. This along with public commissioned art throughout the city and the parties and events taking place as a result of the fair create the critical mass necessary for a successful event to take place. The influx of people and events to the Miami Beach area during each fair encourages activity and spending in both Miami Beach and Miami city itself creating massive, albeit temporary, economic revenue for local businesses.